1878-1898 Variants of Cubanness

The war of independence started by Céspedes, ended in 1878 not with independence, but with political representation for Cubans at the parliament in Madrid. Many social reforms were implemented in Cuba between 1878 and 1898, such as the abolition of slavery, the end of legal racial segregation in public places and schools, and the end to restrictions on inter-racial marriages, in response to petitions and demands by activists like Juan Gualberto Gómez. But some Cubans, many settled in the United States like the poet-journalist José Martí, began another war of Cuban independence in 1895. During this war, generals like Antonio Maceo rose to prominence. In response to the demands of Cubans like Rafael Montoro, Spain granted Cuban autonomy (home rule) on 1 January 1898.


  • Arango y Parreno, Francisco, Informe (Havana, 1812) Wilson Library, James Ford Bell Library collection Bell (1812Ar)
  • Heredia, Jose Maria, Poesias liricas de Jose Maria Heredia (Paris, 1893) MNLAC 867.8 H42 OPo
  • Saco, Jose Antonio, Papeles sobre Cuba, 3 volumes (Havana, 1963) vol. 3 pp. 337-360. Wilson Library 972.91 Sac14c
  • White, Jose, Concerto in F# minor for Violin and Orchestra (Melville, NY, 1976) Music Library Folio M1013 .W59 R8 1976
  • Cespedes, Carlos Manuel, Breve antologia del 10 de octubre (Havana, 1938) Wilson Library 972.91 B758
  • Discursos y escritos : selección Rafael Montoro 1852-1933.; José Manuel Hernández; Rafael E Tarragó (Rafael Emilio), 1951- Ed. facsimilar.. Miami : Editorial Cubana 2000 Wilson Library General Collection (F1783 .M66x 2000 )